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primer_2.0 [2007/09/23 23:12]
205.188.117.136
primer_2.0 [2015/01/31 23:55] (current)
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 ==== SYSTEM STUDIES ==== ==== SYSTEM STUDIES ====
  
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 Banathy describes how systemists work with general principles -"By observing various types of systems and studying their behavior, we can recognize characteristics that are common to all systems. Once we have identified and described a set of concepts that are common to the systems, and observed and discovered among some of them certain relationships,​ we can construct from them ''​General Systems Principles.''​ Thus, a system principle emerges from an interaction/​integration of related concepts. Next, we are in the position to look for relationships among principles and organize related principles into certain conceptual schemes we call ''​Systems Models''​. This process of starting from observation and arriving at the construction of systems models constitutes the ''​First Stage''​ of developing a systems view. Banathy describes how systemists work with general principles -"By observing various types of systems and studying their behavior, we can recognize characteristics that are common to all systems. Once we have identified and described a set of concepts that are common to the systems, and observed and discovered among some of them certain relationships,​ we can construct from them ''​General Systems Principles.''​ Thus, a system principle emerges from an interaction/​integration of related concepts. Next, we are in the position to look for relationships among principles and organize related principles into certain conceptual schemes we call ''​Systems Models''​. This process of starting from observation and arriving at the construction of systems models constitutes the ''​First Stage''​ of developing a systems view.
  
-General System Theory skeptics+GENERAL SYSTEMS THEORY SKEPTICS
 General Systems Theory has, as Laszlo puts it, "wroth a certain amount of havoc" ​ Skeptics claim that no success has been seen toward the development of a singular general system theory. "There ain't no such thing!"​ Len Troncale stated. Instead, apologists claim, the term is being mistranslated and actually is supposed to be of a much more general concept of theories. ​ General Systems Theory has, as Laszlo puts it, "wroth a certain amount of havoc" ​ Skeptics claim that no success has been seen toward the development of a singular general system theory. "There ain't no such thing!"​ Len Troncale stated. Instead, apologists claim, the term is being mistranslated and actually is supposed to be of a much more general concept of theories. ​
  
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 Because systems theory is concerned with principles that are general, philosophy has a crucial influence, hence systems philosophy is a guiding element of systems theory.The transdisciplanarity of systems theory is realized at the philosophical level, whereas the particular level of science is constrained by those particulars to only those particulars. Conversely, when particulars are generalized,​ the particularities are removed becoming by design unprovable but general. Because systems theory is concerned with principles that are general, philosophy has a crucial influence, hence systems philosophy is a guiding element of systems theory.The transdisciplanarity of systems theory is realized at the philosophical level, whereas the particular level of science is constrained by those particulars to only those particulars. Conversely, when particulars are generalized,​ the particularities are removed becoming by design unprovable but general.
  
-Systems Science+SYSTEMS SCIENCE
  
 Eberhard Umbach describes systems science as a highway with many turns off's. Systems science was conceived in the first half of the 20th century to get beyond the limitations of the specialized sciences and the concomitant loss of overview. ​ Eberhard Umbach describes systems science as a highway with many turns off's. Systems science was conceived in the first half of the 20th century to get beyond the limitations of the specialized sciences and the concomitant loss of overview. ​
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 [[http://​isss.org/​projects/​general_orientations_of_systems_science]] [[http://​isss.org/​projects/​general_orientations_of_systems_science]]
  
-Systems Thinking+SYSTEMS THINKING
 A tendency or natural predisposition to think in terms of systemic relationships without necessarily drawing upon systems concepts, systems principles, or systems models. Some examples of areas that incorporate and foster such thinking include permaculture,​ systems biology, feminist studies, ecology, Zen and the I Ching. Systems thinking is ontologically different from elemental thinking.The subject of systems thinking is the interrelationships among the objects. But NOT in the object way. Systems thinking instead is thinking in terms of action/​doing/​knowing. A tendency or natural predisposition to think in terms of systemic relationships without necessarily drawing upon systems concepts, systems principles, or systems models. Some examples of areas that incorporate and foster such thinking include permaculture,​ systems biology, feminist studies, ecology, Zen and the I Ching. Systems thinking is ontologically different from elemental thinking.The subject of systems thinking is the interrelationships among the objects. But NOT in the object way. Systems thinking instead is thinking in terms of action/​doing/​knowing.
  
-Systems Inquiry+SYSTEMS INQUIRY
 Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines the inquiry of systems in three major domains: Philosophy, Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Bela H. Banathy generalized the domains into four integrated "​domains of systemic inquiry"​ operating recursively. Ludwig von Bertalanffy outlines the inquiry of systems in three major domains: Philosophy, Science, and Technology. In his work with the Primer Group, Bela H. Banathy generalized the domains into four integrated "​domains of systemic inquiry"​ operating recursively.
  
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 Markus Schwaninger describes this as "​Being."​ Markus Schwaninger describes this as "​Being."​
  
-System types+SYSTEM TYPES
  
 Crucial to working with systems are the types of system. Varous authors have defined system types similiar to that given us by Bela H Banathy who identifies the major categories as '''''​Natural'''​ and '''​Designed'''''​ systems. Natural systems are those which occur in nature while designed systems are those created by us. Designed Systems include: ​ Crucial to working with systems are the types of system. Varous authors have defined system types similiar to that given us by Bela H Banathy who identifies the major categories as '''''​Natural'''​ and '''​Designed'''''​ systems. Natural systems are those which occur in nature while designed systems are those created by us. Designed Systems include: ​
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 d) Human Activity Systems, our purposeful creations (groups) d) Human Activity Systems, our purposeful creations (groups)
  
-Multiple Perspectives+MULTIPLE PERSPECTIVES
  
 In Hal LInstone'​s T.O.P. methodology,​ developed from experience in  the field. the different perspectives one may adopt are grouped into the "​Technical,​ (T); the Organizational(O) and the Personal (P). He maintains that a Technical perspective will not, for example, focus on Personal issues..."​Applied to a given system, each perspective yields insights not attainable with the others. Together, T, 0, and P form what Churchman calls a Singerian inquiring system. “Cross-cuing” and integration of the perspectives must be done by the decision maker. An analogy is the American courtroom, where the jury considers various perspectives (witness testimonies) and even prototype integrations (by the prosecutor and defense attorney), but must undertake its own integration to arrive at a verdict. Furthermore,​ as any executive knows, science-based “replication” and “validation” are not meaningful concepts in this context."​ In Hal LInstone'​s T.O.P. methodology,​ developed from experience in  the field. the different perspectives one may adopt are grouped into the "​Technical,​ (T); the Organizational(O) and the Personal (P). He maintains that a Technical perspective will not, for example, focus on Personal issues..."​Applied to a given system, each perspective yields insights not attainable with the others. Together, T, 0, and P form what Churchman calls a Singerian inquiring system. “Cross-cuing” and integration of the perspectives must be done by the decision maker. An analogy is the American courtroom, where the jury considers various perspectives (witness testimonies) and even prototype integrations (by the prosecutor and defense attorney), but must undertake its own integration to arrive at a verdict. Furthermore,​ as any executive knows, science-based “replication” and “validation” are not meaningful concepts in this context."​
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 The methodology,​ a method The methodology,​ a method
  
-Process model+PROCESS MODEL
  
 An organized arrangement of systems concepts and principles that portray the behavior of a system through time. Its metaphor is the “motion-picture” of “movie” of the system. An organized arrangement of systems concepts and principles that portray the behavior of a system through time. Its metaphor is the “motion-picture” of “movie” of the system.
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 Gyorgy Jaros has looked at information as a process. Of his Teleonics concept he writes: "It is argued that these informationally bonded processes are the basic ingredients of life and entities, which appear only as the result of processes, are of secondary importance(?​). Thus, in Teleonics one does not speak of interaction between entities, but ''​interaction between processes''​."​ Gyorgy Jaros has looked at information as a process. Of his Teleonics concept he writes: "It is argued that these informationally bonded processes are the basic ingredients of life and entities, which appear only as the result of processes, are of secondary importance(?​). Thus, in Teleonics one does not speak of interaction between entities, but ''​interaction between processes''​."​
  
-Hierarchy Theory+HIERARCHY THEORY
  
 Hierarchy Theory focuses on levels, and in a grequently used version,on scale. A significant emphasis is on the observer, thus it has been viewed as a theory of observation. ​ For example, an individual human being may be a member of the level I) Organism, or Host, or parasite, II) primate, III) Hierarchy Theory focuses on levels, and in a grequently used version,on scale. A significant emphasis is on the observer, thus it has been viewed as a theory of observation. ​ For example, an individual human being may be a member of the level I) Organism, or Host, or parasite, II) primate, III)
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 Allen writes, "​Hierarchy theory is as much as anything a theory of observation. It has been significantly operationalized in ecology, but has been applied relatively infrequently outside that science. There is a negative reaction to hierarchy theory in the social sciences, by virtue of implications of rigid autocratic systems or authority. When applied in a more general fashion, even liberal and non-authoritarian systems can be described effectively in hierarchical terms. There is a politically correct set of labels that avoid the word hierarchy, but they unnecessarily introduce jargon into a field that has enough special vocabulary as it is. " [[2]]. ​ Pther workers take a more ontological approach. Allen writes, "​Hierarchy theory is as much as anything a theory of observation. It has been significantly operationalized in ecology, but has been applied relatively infrequently outside that science. There is a negative reaction to hierarchy theory in the social sciences, by virtue of implications of rigid autocratic systems or authority. When applied in a more general fashion, even liberal and non-authoritarian systems can be described effectively in hierarchical terms. There is a politically correct set of labels that avoid the word hierarchy, but they unnecessarily introduce jargon into a field that has enough special vocabulary as it is. " [[2]]. ​ Pther workers take a more ontological approach.
  
- ​Scalar Hierarchy Theory+SCALAR HIERARCHY THEORY
  
 Stanley Salthe'​s approach involves two kinds of hierarchy - Scalar and Specification. A ''​Scalar hierarchy'',​ formally a compositonal hierarchy, has levels nested within one another, while ''​Specification hierarchy'',​ formally a subsumption hierarchy, extends ordered intensional complexity. Salthe writes: "​Hierarchy Theory encompasses both the scalar hierarchy with nested extensions (represented as scalar levels as in Stanley Salthe'​s approach involves two kinds of hierarchy - Scalar and Specification. A ''​Scalar hierarchy'',​ formally a compositonal hierarchy, has levels nested within one another, while ''​Specification hierarchy'',​ formally a subsumption hierarchy, extends ordered intensional complexity. Salthe writes: "​Hierarchy Theory encompasses both the scalar hierarchy with nested extensions (represented as scalar levels as in
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 In the specification hierarchy { } is a selectively transparent one-way filter. For example, at the level where social dynamics are taking place selected chemical dynamics are also "​visible",​ in their effects upon the social dynamics, along with the promotion or harnessing of these dynamics by social ones." In the specification hierarchy { } is a selectively transparent one-way filter. For example, at the level where social dynamics are taking place selected chemical dynamics are also "​visible",​ in their effects upon the social dynamics, along with the promotion or harnessing of these dynamics by social ones."
  
-General evolution theory+GENERAL EVOLUTION THEORY
  
 Evolution is a tendency toward greater structural complexity, ecological and/or organizational effectiveness,​ more efficient modes of operation, and greater dynamic harmony by means of self-organization. A system by definition is an evolutionary system. A significant feature of a system is emergence. When the focus is on the interrelationships of a system, these relationships may be found to have emergent properties, properties which Evolution is a tendency toward greater structural complexity, ecological and/or organizational effectiveness,​ more efficient modes of operation, and greater dynamic harmony by means of self-organization. A system by definition is an evolutionary system. A significant feature of a system is emergence. When the focus is on the interrelationships of a system, these relationships may be found to have emergent properties, properties which
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-Self organization+SELF ORGANIZATION
  
 Self-organization occurs, for example, in the cell in the process of DNA replication whereby a second DNA molecule is produced as a complementary to the existing strand without any external influences. Self-organization is also seen in the union of the sperm with the ovum to form a relationship. Evolution is initiated by the self-organization of new phenotypic configurations. Self-organized Evolution is a characteristic of a system, not a product of chance events. ​ It involves both system characteristics and contigingency. Self-organization occurs, for example, in the cell in the process of DNA replication whereby a second DNA molecule is produced as a complementary to the existing strand without any external influences. Self-organization is also seen in the union of the sperm with the ovum to form a relationship. Evolution is initiated by the self-organization of new phenotypic configurations. Self-organized Evolution is a characteristic of a system, not a product of chance events. ​ It involves both system characteristics and contigingency.
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 </​ref>​ </​ref>​
  
-Hard and Soft systems+HARD AND SOFT SYSTEMS
  
 '​Soft'​ systems was made distinct from '​hard'​ systems in order to differentiate among the mathematical models employed. Some systems, such as a social system, do not lend themselves to mathematical formulations as they do in, say, chemical reaction systems. Generally, hard systems are the physical systems while Soft systems are Human Activity Systems. The concept was introduced by Peter Checkland in 1981 '​Soft'​ systems was made distinct from '​hard'​ systems in order to differentiate among the mathematical models employed. Some systems, such as a social system, do not lend themselves to mathematical formulations as they do in, say, chemical reaction systems. Generally, hard systems are the physical systems while Soft systems are Human Activity Systems. The concept was introduced by Peter Checkland in 1981
  
-Social system design+SOCIAL SYSTEMS DESIGN
 Social systems design advocates participative democracy in which those affected by the design are the creators of the design. The metaphor of "​sweeping in" applies in particular here. This requires a working knowledge of the dynamics which govern the interconnected,​ interdependant and interacting problems. Solutions emerge when the situation is looked at as a whole. Banathy argues "While traditional science describes what exists as determined by experiments,​ classification,​ analysis and deduction in a objective, rational and neutral way, social system design focuses on understanding,​ by means of analogy, metaphor, criticism and evaluation to form patterns, conjectures and models as a subjective, creative and empathetic concern."​ Social systems design advocates participative democracy in which those affected by the design are the creators of the design. The metaphor of "​sweeping in" applies in particular here. This requires a working knowledge of the dynamics which govern the interconnected,​ interdependant and interacting problems. Solutions emerge when the situation is looked at as a whole. Banathy argues "While traditional science describes what exists as determined by experiments,​ classification,​ analysis and deduction in a objective, rational and neutral way, social system design focuses on understanding,​ by means of analogy, metaphor, criticism and evaluation to form patterns, conjectures and models as a subjective, creative and empathetic concern."​
  
-Human Activity Systems+HUMAN ACTIVITY SYSTEMS
 Human Activity Systems are designed social systems organized for a purpose, which they attain by carrying out specific functions. The various types of Human Activity Systems include Rigidly controlled systems, (assembly line) Deterministic systems (educational systems); Purposive systems, (Corporations) Purpose Seeking systems, (social systems) and Heuristic systems, (R&D agencies). Human Activity Systems are designed social systems organized for a purpose, which they attain by carrying out specific functions. The various types of Human Activity Systems include Rigidly controlled systems, (assembly line) Deterministic systems (educational systems); Purposive systems, (Corporations) Purpose Seeking systems, (social systems) and Heuristic systems, (R&D agencies).
  
-Social Systems Designing+SOCIAL SYSTEMS DESIGNING
  
 Bela H Banathy has developed social system design beginning early in his career. Social systems design does not attempt to design for the affected, "the age of the designer expert is over" he claims. This notion becomes clear when it is realized that a whole system involves those who are affected by it. And pragmatically it is believed by proponents that those who partake in their own systems design are more likely to remain committed to the design. In this way the unique desires of the participants are taken into consideration. Systems theory provides the requisite knowledge of how to design which enables those who are affected to competantly design their own system. Bela H Banathy has developed social system design beginning early in his career. Social systems design does not attempt to design for the affected, "the age of the designer expert is over" he claims. This notion becomes clear when it is realized that a whole system involves those who are affected by it. And pragmatically it is believed by proponents that those who partake in their own systems design are more likely to remain committed to the design. In this way the unique desires of the participants are taken into consideration. Systems theory provides the requisite knowledge of how to design which enables those who are affected to competantly design their own system.
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 [[http://​www.isss.org/​projects/​methodology]] [[http://​www.isss.org/​projects/​methodology]]
  
-Social System Ethics+SOCIAL SYSTEMS ETHICS
  
 A considerable library of literature about systems ethics was produced, ​ A considerable library of literature about systems ethics was produced, ​
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-Particular Systemic Intentions+PARTICULAR SYSTEMIC INTENTIONS
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 Because systems theory can be used as a metatheory, particularized methodologies of systemics have emerged in various fields. Bertalanffy comments that the content is the same, what is different is the intentions. Because systems theory can be used as a metatheory, particularized methodologies of systemics have emerged in various fields. Bertalanffy comments that the content is the same, what is different is the intentions.
  
-Soft Systems Methodology+SOFT SYSTEM METHODOLOGY
  
 Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed by Peter Checkland as a generic systems approach to problem solving in Management. In its simple form, SSM is a progressive learning tool involving gathering information,​ defining concepts, developing conceptual models, comparing the models to the perceived reality and then action is taken accordingly. The process is recursive. ​ Soft Systems Methodology (SSM) was developed by Peter Checkland as a generic systems approach to problem solving in Management. In its simple form, SSM is a progressive learning tool involving gathering information,​ defining concepts, developing conceptual models, comparing the models to the perceived reality and then action is taken accordingly. The process is recursive. ​
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 Fuenmayor extended SSM with his theory of Interpretive Systemology. In this interpretation,​ fact are not facts in themselves, but are interpretations. He writes: "The methodological search or knowledge is characterized by the modeling of various contexts of meaning, by explicitly interpreting the phenomenon with regard to such contexts of meaning and by discussing the various interpretations in the light of their respective contexts of meaning."​ Fuenmayor extended SSM with his theory of Interpretive Systemology. In this interpretation,​ fact are not facts in themselves, but are interpretations. He writes: "The methodological search or knowledge is characterized by the modeling of various contexts of meaning, by explicitly interpreting the phenomenon with regard to such contexts of meaning and by discussing the various interpretations in the light of their respective contexts of meaning."​
  
-Interactive Management+INTERACTIVE MANAGEMENT
 Interactive Management is a decision-orientated disciplined inquiry seeking to resolve issues and situations that are beyond ordinary resolution techniques. The concept was developed by Warfield and Christakis in 1980 at the University of Virginia, one of the first design approaches to use computer software programs. ​ Interactive Management is a decision-orientated disciplined inquiry seeking to resolve issues and situations that are beyond ordinary resolution techniques. The concept was developed by Warfield and Christakis in 1980 at the University of Virginia, one of the first design approaches to use computer software programs. ​
  
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 Relevant outcomes of IM include (1) participants are involved in  significant learning experiences,​ (2) their involvement creates commitments to the choices made and (3) careful and detailed documentation enables wide distribution of findings available for continuing design. ​ <ref> Banathy, Bela H. (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum Press, New YOur. ISBN 0-306-45251-0</​ref>​ Relevant outcomes of IM include (1) participants are involved in  significant learning experiences,​ (2) their involvement creates commitments to the choices made and (3) careful and detailed documentation enables wide distribution of findings available for continuing design. ​ <ref> Banathy, Bela H. (1996) Designing Social Systems in a Changing World. Plenum Press, New YOur. ISBN 0-306-45251-0</​ref>​
  
-Critical Systems Theory+CRITICAL SYSTEMS THEORY
  
 Critical systems theory is a soft system methodology which tries to equalize the power inequities which often thwart SSM. Jackson writes " privileged stakeholders (in terms of wealth, status, or power) are unlikely to risk their dominant position and submit their privileges to the vagaries of idealized design or whatever." ​ Critical systems theory is a soft system methodology which tries to equalize the power inequities which often thwart SSM. Jackson writes " privileged stakeholders (in terms of wealth, status, or power) are unlikely to risk their dominant position and submit their privileges to the vagaries of idealized design or whatever." ​
  
-Critical Heuristics of Social System Design.+CRITICAL HEURISTICS OF SOCIAL SYSTEM DESIGN 
 Werner Ulrich sees science as the study of "​contexts of application"​ ."<​ref>​Bausch KC (2000) ''​The Emerging Consensus in Social Systems Theory.''​ Kluwar Academics, New York p126</​ref>​ He finds a problem between science and those affected by it. His concern about the coercive effects of pseudoscience. As in many other situations, the ideal circumstances might make an idealized system model work, but life is ill-defined. Ulrich has in mind those who are unwitting victims of ideological forces. Domination of one over the other "''​by forces other than that of the better argument''​. "​Critical heuristics posits three requirements:​ (1) "a clear understanding of the unavoidability and critical significance of justification break-off'​s;​ (1)  a conceptual framework to identify effective breakoff'​s of argumentation";​ and (3) "a tool of cogent argumentation that would be available ...to ordinary citizens." ​ "The systems movement will make a real contribution toward communicative systems rationalization if it puts the systems idea to work on the job of dealing critically with conditions of imperfect rationality"​ Ulrich advises. Werner Ulrich sees science as the study of "​contexts of application"​ ."<​ref>​Bausch KC (2000) ''​The Emerging Consensus in Social Systems Theory.''​ Kluwar Academics, New York p126</​ref>​ He finds a problem between science and those affected by it. His concern about the coercive effects of pseudoscience. As in many other situations, the ideal circumstances might make an idealized system model work, but life is ill-defined. Ulrich has in mind those who are unwitting victims of ideological forces. Domination of one over the other "''​by forces other than that of the better argument''​. "​Critical heuristics posits three requirements:​ (1) "a clear understanding of the unavoidability and critical significance of justification break-off'​s;​ (1)  a conceptual framework to identify effective breakoff'​s of argumentation";​ and (3) "a tool of cogent argumentation that would be available ...to ordinary citizens." ​ "The systems movement will make a real contribution toward communicative systems rationalization if it puts the systems idea to work on the job of dealing critically with conditions of imperfect rationality"​ Ulrich advises.
  
-Total Systems Intervention+TOTAL SYSTEMS INTERVENTION
  
 Total Systems Intervention is described by Mike Jackson and R. Flood as a total systems approach to planning, designing, problem solving and evaluation. Total Systems Intervention is described by Mike Jackson and R. Flood as a total systems approach to planning, designing, problem solving and evaluation.
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 Three stages of the TSI Process include the ''​creativity stage'' ​ in which metaphors such as organization as a machine, or organism, or brain, or culture, or team, or coalition, or prison, leads to enhanced appreciation of key issues. The second stage is a choice of a ''​dominant methodology''​ to tackle the key issues. And the third is ''​implementation''​. The process is systemic and iterative with continual reference back to other phases of the process. Three stages of the TSI Process include the ''​creativity stage'' ​ in which metaphors such as organization as a machine, or organism, or brain, or culture, or team, or coalition, or prison, leads to enhanced appreciation of key issues. The second stage is a choice of a ''​dominant methodology''​ to tackle the key issues. And the third is ''​implementation''​. The process is systemic and iterative with continual reference back to other phases of the process.
  
-Integrated Systems Methodologies+INTERGRATED SYSTEMS METHODLOGIES
 "ISM is a heuristic to provide actors in organizations with requisite variety, developed by Schwaninger [1997]. It advocates (a) dealing with both content- and context-related issues, and (b) placing a stronger emphasis on the validation of qualitative and quantitative models, as well as strategies, in both dimensions: content and context. For this purpose, the tools of SD (to model content)and Management Cybernetics – the VSM (to model context) - are cogently integrated."​ "ISM is a heuristic to provide actors in organizations with requisite variety, developed by Schwaninger [1997]. It advocates (a) dealing with both content- and context-related issues, and (b) placing a stronger emphasis on the validation of qualitative and quantitative models, as well as strategies, in both dimensions: content and context. For this purpose, the tools of SD (to model content)and Management Cybernetics – the VSM (to model context) - are cogently integrated."​
 Coparticipative Design Coparticipative Design
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 Architecture of Complexity Architecture of Complexity
  
- ​Problematique+PROBLAMATIQUE
  
 John Warfield, in his book ''​Understanding Complexity, Thought and Behavior'',​ writes about a program centered on the relationships among the elements of a complexity. He calls this the "Work Program of Complexity",​ designed to illuminate the perplexity of complexity through "​learning"​. The program has two fundamental thrusts, one toward ''​discovery''​ and the other toward ''​resolution''​. Discovery has two thrusts: ''​description''​ and ''​diagnosis''​. Resolution has two also, ''​planning''​ and ''​implementation''​. The program uses ''​Interactive Management''​ principles to enable a group to come to grips with a problem. ​ John Warfield, in his book ''​Understanding Complexity, Thought and Behavior'',​ writes about a program centered on the relationships among the elements of a complexity. He calls this the "Work Program of Complexity",​ designed to illuminate the perplexity of complexity through "​learning"​. The program has two fundamental thrusts, one toward ''​discovery''​ and the other toward ''​resolution''​. Discovery has two thrusts: ''​description''​ and ''​diagnosis''​. Resolution has two also, ''​planning''​ and ''​implementation''​. The program uses ''​Interactive Management''​ principles to enable a group to come to grips with a problem. ​
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 Once the Problematique is created, and presented in an ''​observatorium''​ in such a manner to be worthy of the work involved, a ''​diagnosis''​ is formed, a plan devised, and then implemented. Once the Problematique is created, and presented in an ''​observatorium''​ in such a manner to be worthy of the work involved, a ''​diagnosis''​ is formed, a plan devised, and then implemented.
  
-Systems view of Education+SYSTEMS VIEW OF EDUCATION 
 "A systems view enfolds large sets of concepts that constitute principles common to all kinds of systems, that are manifested in multiple connotations,​ such as the way we can think (systems thinking), the way we understand phenomena (having a systems perspective),​ and characterize an entity (systems discription) the way an entity behaves (systems behavoir) and the way we might do things (systems practice). ... Having a systems view of education, for example, means that we can think about education as a system, we can understand and describe it as a system, we can design education so that it manifests systems behavoir, and we can engage in educational inquiry by using approaches and methods of systems practice"<​ref>​Banathy,​ Bela H., (1992) A Systems View of Education; Concepts and Principes for Effective Practice. Educational Technology Publications,​ New Jersey.ISBN 0-87778-245-8</​ref>​ "A systems view enfolds large sets of concepts that constitute principles common to all kinds of systems, that are manifested in multiple connotations,​ such as the way we can think (systems thinking), the way we understand phenomena (having a systems perspective),​ and characterize an entity (systems discription) the way an entity behaves (systems behavoir) and the way we might do things (systems practice). ... Having a systems view of education, for example, means that we can think about education as a system, we can understand and describe it as a system, we can design education so that it manifests systems behavoir, and we can engage in educational inquiry by using approaches and methods of systems practice"<​ref>​Banathy,​ Bela H., (1992) A Systems View of Education; Concepts and Principes for Effective Practice. Educational Technology Publications,​ New Jersey.ISBN 0-87778-245-8</​ref>​
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-Cybernetics+CYBERNETICS 
 N. Wiener defined cybernetics in  1948 as the field of control and communication in the animal and the machine. This thread has produced technical cybernetics described by I.G. Bloor "as a technique it has become the design template for mechanical and electronic systems and latterly the design of management informations systems. Cybernetic theory requests that all inputs to, and outputs from a system must be defined or designed together with suitable triggers or sensor mechanisms to detect change in activity or response."​ (1987 p.8) N. Wiener defined cybernetics in  1948 as the field of control and communication in the animal and the machine. This thread has produced technical cybernetics described by I.G. Bloor "as a technique it has become the design template for mechanical and electronic systems and latterly the design of management informations systems. Cybernetic theory requests that all inputs to, and outputs from a system must be defined or designed together with suitable triggers or sensor mechanisms to detect change in activity or response."​ (1987 p.8)
  
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 Third Order Cybernetics is a systhesis of the observed and the observer. Third Order Cybernetics is a systhesis of the observed and the observer.
  
-Systems Theory in Practice+SYSTEMS THEORY IN PRACTICE
  
 It is the nature of a system that there are outward and inward flows of information and communication. If the field of systems theory is looked at with this model, we also find this complementary of in/out in this way: (1) Systems Theory is practiced by systems theorists/​academicians as the  ''​focus''​ of their research (outward), while (2) others outside the systems academic domain ''​use''​ system principles (inward) to focus on ''​their''​ research, whatever that might be. An illustration of how systems thinking is practiced by those outside the systems movement can be found in the article [[systems biology]]. ​ It is the nature of a system that there are outward and inward flows of information and communication. If the field of systems theory is looked at with this model, we also find this complementary of in/out in this way: (1) Systems Theory is practiced by systems theorists/​academicians as the  ''​focus''​ of their research (outward), while (2) others outside the systems academic domain ''​use''​ system principles (inward) to focus on ''​their''​ research, whatever that might be. An illustration of how systems thinking is practiced by those outside the systems movement can be found in the article [[systems biology]]. ​
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 [[http://​www.systemsbiology.org/​Intro_to_ISB_and_Systems_Biology/​Why_Systems_Matter]] [[http://​www.systemsbiology.org/​Intro_to_ISB_and_Systems_Biology/​Why_Systems_Matter]]
  
-Methodologies in general terms+MTHODOLOGIES IN GENERAL TERMS
  
 Systems biologists try to accomplish their aims in part: Systems biologists try to accomplish their aims in part:
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-Principle Investigators*'''​Ludwig von Bertalanffy'''​ (1901--1972):​ Author of General Systems Theory, co-founder of first systems research society, Society for General Systems Research. Generally regarded as the Father of systemics ​+PRINCIPLE INVESTIGATORS 
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 +*'''​Ludwig von Bertalanffy'''​ (1901--1972):​ Author of General Systems Theory, co-founder of first systems research society, Society for General Systems Research. Generally regarded as the Father of systemics ​
  
 *was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century; researched on comparative physiology, on biophysics, on cancer, on psychology, on philosophy of science ... *was one of the most important theoretical biologists of the first half of this century; researched on comparative physiology, on biophysics, on cancer, on psychology, on philosophy of science ...
primer_2.0.1190603538.txt.gz · Last modified: 2015/01/31 23:48 (external edit)